Communications field technicians often maintain equipment that interfaces with a multiplex (mux) circuit or Telephone Company (TELCO) leased line. When circuit-related problems arise, the first step toward trouble resolution is a basic understanding of transmission impairments. Transmission impairments are typically placed in one of two categories: steady-state (which are constant in nature), and transient. Since transient impairments are intermittent, instantaneous phenomena, associated ...

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