1995FCC approves rules in the refarming proceeding that are designed to make more efficient use of LMR spectrum.

Feb. 14, 1997 — FCC requires that LMR equipment operating on 25 kHz channels also be able to operate on 12.5 kHz channels to meet certification criteria.

Feb. 25, 2003 — FCC adopts order mandating that business-industrial licensees narrowband their systems to 12.5 kHz channels by Jan. 1, 2013, and that public-safety licensees narrowband their systems by Jan. 1, 2018.

Dec. 20, 2004 — FCC adopts order mandating that public-safety licensees meet the same Jan. 1, 2013, narrowbanding deadline that business-industrial licensees must meet.

Jan. 1, 2012 — Date by which FCC officials have asked that licensees seeking waivers make their formal requests.

Jan. 1, 2013 — Deadline for virtually all LMR systems operating on spectrum below 512 MHz to be narrowbanded, or the licensee will be in violation of FCC rules and subject to enforcement action.

  • Read the main article, "Failure is not an option," to learn about myriad obstacles that threaten to not only slow the migration to next-generation technology but derail it completely.